Reading: Chapter 10 “Argumentation”

-Developing your essay:

1.)Choose an appropriate topic-Try to find a more focused, specific issue within a subject that is too general.

2.)Explore the possibilities.. and your opinions-Jot down a list of ideas and study the list and choose the one that are logical and persuasive.

3.)Anticipate opposing views-To be convincing, you must be aware of your opposition’s views on the subject and then organize essay to answer or counter those views.

4.)Know and remember your audience-Analyze your audience by asking one self a series of question.

5.)Decide which points of argument to include-Plan out what to write in essay by making a Pro-and-Con sheet.

6.)Organize your essay clearly

7.)Argue your ideas logically-Give examples(real/hypothetical). Present a comparison/contrast. Show cause&effect relationship. Argue by definition.

8.)Offer evidence that effectively supports your claims-Personal experiences/testimony of others whose opinions are pertinent to the topic. Factual information you’ve gathers from research. Statistics from current, reliable sources. Testimony from authorities&experts. Charts, graphs, and diagrams.

9.)Find appropriate tone

10.)Consider using Rogerian techniques- A clear, objective statement of the problem/issue. A clear, objective summary of the opposite’s position that shows you understand its point of view&goals A clear, objective summary of your point of view, stated in nonthreatening language. A discussion that emphasizes the beliefs, values, and goals that you and your opposite have in common. A description of any of your points that you are willing to concede or compromise. An explanation of a planor proposed solute that meets the needs of both sides.

11.) Problems to Avoid(common logical fallacies)

-Hasty generalization: The writer bases the argument on insufficient or unrepresentative evidence. 

-Non sequitur(it doesn’t follow): The writer’s conclusion is not necessarily a logical result of the facts.

-Begging the question: The writer presents as truth what is not yet proven by the argument.

-Red herring: The write introduces an irrelevant point to divert the reader’s attention from main issue.

-Argument&haminem(to the man): The writer attacks the opponent’s character rather than opponent’s argument.

-Faulty use of authority: The writer relies on “authorities” who are not convincing sources.

-Argument ad populum(to the people): The writer evades the issues by appealing to reader’s emotional reactions to certain subjects.

-either/or: The writer tries to convince readers that are only two sides to an issue-1 right, 1 wrong.

-Hypostatization: The writer uses an abstract concept as if it were a concrete reality. Example:”Science has proven…” or “Research shows…”

-Bandwagon appeal: The writer tries to validate a point by intimating that “everyone else believes in this”

-Straw man: The writer selects the opposition’s weakest or most insignificant point to argue against, to divert the readers’ attention from the real issues.

-Faulty analogy: The writer uses an extended comparison as proof of a point.

-Quick fix: The writer leans too heavily on catchy phases or empty slogans.

Reading: Chapter 9 “Exposition”

Developing your Essay: Are all my examples relevant? Are my examples well chosen? Are there enough examples to make each point clear and persuasive?

Problems to Avoid: By far, the most common weakness n essays developed by example is a lack of specific detail. The second biggest problem in example essays is a lack of coherence.

-A directional process tells the reader how to do or make something. In simple words, it gives directions.

Developing your essay

-Select appropriate subject.

-Describe any necessary equipment and define special terms.

-Include all the necessary steps in a logical order.

-explain each step clearly, sufficiently and accurately.

-Organize your steps effectively.

Problems to Avoid

– Don’t forget to include a thesis.

-Pay special attention to your conclusion.

Reviewing your progress:Which part of your essay is most successful? Why? Select two details that contribute significantly to the clarity of your explanation. Why are these details effective? What part of your essay gave you the most trouble? How did you overcome the problem?

-Problems to avoid:

1.)The single most serious error is the “so-what” thesis.

2.)Describe your subject’s clearly and distinctly.

3.)Avoid a choppy essay.

A special Kind of comparison: The Analogy

1.)To clarify and explain

2.)To argue and persuade

3.) To dramatize or capture an image.

Reading: Chapter 11 “Description”

How to write effective description

-Recognize your purpose.

-Describe clearly, using specific details.

-Select only appropriate details.

-Make your description vivid.(Sight, hearing, smell, touch, taste)

Problems to Avoid

-Remember your audience.

-Avoid an erratic organization of details.

-Avoid any sudden change in perspective.

Reading: Chapter 15 “Classroom Writing: Exams, Timed Essays, and Presentation”

Steps to Writing well Under Pressure:

1.)Clarify for yourself the kind of task you face(Short-answer exam questions, essay exam questions, “prompted essays, summary-and-response essays.”

2.)arrived prepared.

3.)Read the entire assignment with great care,

4.)Prepare to write.

5.)Begin writing.

6.)Read what you have written.

7.)Concluding tips:if you have handwritten your work.

-Problems to Avoid

Misreading the assignment

incomplete essay.

Composition amnesia.

Gorilla generalizations.

Steps to successful Presentations

1.)Clearly understand your assignment’s purpose and format.

2.)Once you understand your purpose and its format, be aware of the presentation’s exact logistical requirement.

3.)Consider your listening audience’s needs.

4.)Practice your critical thinking skills.

5.)Make a written draft of your talk.

6.)Practice your delivery.

Guidelines for Effective Delivery

1.)Monitor your voice.

2.)Make eye contact.

3.)Avoid distractions.

4.)Consider instructional aids.

5.)Adjust and adapt.

6.)End well.

Reading: Chapter 6 “Effective sentences”

-Developing a clear style:

Give your sentences content.

Make your sentences specific.

Avoid overpacking your sentences.

Fix major sentence errors.

Pay attention to word order.

Avoid mixed constructions and faulty predication.

-Developing a Concise style

Avoid deadwood constructions.

Avoid redundancy.

Carefully consider your passive verbs.

Avoid pretentiousness.

-Developing an engaging style

Use specific, descriptive verbs

Use specific, precise modifiers that help the reader see, hear, or feel what you are describing.

Emphasize people when possible,

Vary your sentence style. 

Avoid overuse of any one kind of construction in the same sentence

Don’t change your point of view between or within sentences.

-Developing an Emphatic style

Word order.




Reading: Chapter 1 “Prewriting”

-Selecting A subject: FInd best space. Select something in which you currently have a strong interest. Narrow a large subject.

-Finding your essay’s purpose and focus: Find clear focus or direction for your essay. Determine the main point that you want to make. Always allow your interest and knowledge to guide you.

-Pump-Primer Techniques:Listing, free writing, looping, the boomerang, clustering, cubing(Describe it, compare or contrast it, free-associate it, analyze it, argue for or against it, apply it), interviewing, the cross-examination, sketching, dramatizing the subject.

-How to identify your Readers: Readers don’t like to be bored. Readers hate confusion and disorder. Readers want to think and learn(whether they realize or not). Reader want to see what you see, feel what you feel. Readers are turned off by writers with pretentious, phony voices,

-Uses of the Journal:

1.)Use the journal, especially in the first weeks of class, to confront your fears of writing, to conquer the blank page.

2.) Improve your powers of observation.

3.)Save your own brilliant ideas.

4.)Save other people’s brilliant ideas.

5.)Be creative.

6.)Keep pre- and post-reading notes.

7.)Record responses to class discussions.

8.)Fous on a problem.

9.)Practice audience awareness.

10.)Describe your own writing process.

11.)Write a progress report.

12.)Become sensitive.

13.)Write your own textbook.

Reading: Chapter 5 “Drafting and Revising”

-Critical thinking refers to the ability to reflect upon and evaluate the merits of our own ideas and those of others as we decide what to believe, what to do, or how to act.

Thinking critically as a writer:

1.)Learn to distinguish fact from opinion

2.)Support opinion with evidence

3.)Evaluate strength and source of evidence

4.)Use enough supporting evidence

5.)Watch biases and strong emotions that may undermine evidence

6.)Check evidence for logical fallacies

Guidelines for peer revision workshop as a WRITER: Develop a constructive attitude. Come prepared. Evaluate suggestions carefully. Find the good in bad advice.

Guidelines for peer revision workshop as the REVIEWER: Develop a constructive attitude. Be clear and specific. Address important issues. Encourage the writer. Understand your role as critical reader.

Guidelines for small-group work:Start informed. Know your purpose. Create a plan with a time schedule. Consider appointing roles. Stay focused, Be a good listener as well as a good talker. Set a good example.