Reading: Chapter 4 “Beginnings and Endings”

Examples of lead-ins:

1.)A paradoxical/intriguing statement.

2.)An arresting statistic or shocking statement.

3.)A question.

4.)A quotation from a recognized authority, historical figure, or literary source.

5.) A relevant story, joke, anecdote.

6.)A description, often used for emotional appeal.

7.)A factual statement or a summary who-what-where-when-why lead in.

8.)An analogy/comparison.

9.)A contrast or a before-and-after scenario.

10.)A personal experience

11.)A catalog of relevant examples or facts.

12.)Statement of a problem or a popular misconception.

13.)Brief dialogue to introduce the topic.

14.)A proverb, maxim, motto.

15.)A recognition, revelation, or insight.

16.)An appeal to a common or imagined experience.

Avoiding Errors in Lead-ins:Make sure lead-in introduces thesis. Keep lead-in brief. Don’t begin with apology or complaint. Don’t assume audience already knows subject matter. Stay clear of overused lead-ins.

-How to write good concluding paragraph:

1.)A summary of the thesis and the essay’s major points

2.)An evaluation of importance of the essay’s subject

3.)A statement of the essay’s broader implications

4.)A recommendation or call to action

5.)A warning based on essay’s thesis

6.)A quotation from an authority or someone whose insight emphasizes main point.

7.)An anecdote/brief example that emphasizes or sums up the point of essay

8.)An image/description that lends finality to the essay

9.)A rhetorical question that makes the readers think about main point

10.)A forecast based on thesis

11.)ironic twist, witticism, pun or playful use of words

12.)Return to technique used in lead-in(answer question you asked circle back to story)

Avoiding Errors in conclusions: Avoid boring, mechanical ending. Don’t introduce new points or irrelevant material. Don’t tack on conclusion. Don’t change stance. Avoid trite expressions. Don’t insult or anger readers.

How to present title: No special marks of punctuation if own title. Capitalize first, last and important words of title. DONT capitalize such words as “an”, “and”, “a”. Sometimes writers craft a title that presents a word/phrase followed by a colon introducing a definition.

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