Reading: Chapter 10 “Argumentation”

-Developing your essay:

1.)Choose an appropriate topic-Try to find a more focused, specific issue within a subject that is too general.

2.)Explore the possibilities.. and your opinions-Jot down a list of ideas and study the list and choose the one that are logical and persuasive.

3.)Anticipate opposing views-To be convincing, you must be aware of your opposition’s views on the subject and then organize essay to answer or counter those views.

4.)Know and remember your audience-Analyze your audience by asking one self a series of question.

5.)Decide which points of argument to include-Plan out what to write in essay by making a Pro-and-Con sheet.

6.)Organize your essay clearly

7.)Argue your ideas logically-Give examples(real/hypothetical). Present a comparison/contrast. Show cause&effect relationship. Argue by definition.

8.)Offer evidence that effectively supports your claims-Personal experiences/testimony of others whose opinions are pertinent to the topic. Factual information you’ve gathers from research. Statistics from current, reliable sources. Testimony from authorities&experts. Charts, graphs, and diagrams.

9.)Find appropriate tone

10.)Consider using Rogerian techniques- A clear, objective statement of the problem/issue. A clear, objective summary of the opposite’s position that shows you understand its point of view&goals A clear, objective summary of your point of view, stated in nonthreatening language. A discussion that emphasizes the beliefs, values, and goals that you and your opposite have in common. A description of any of your points that you are willing to concede or compromise. An explanation of a planor proposed solute that meets the needs of both sides.

11.) Problems to Avoid(common logical fallacies)

-Hasty generalization: The writer bases the argument on insufficient or unrepresentative evidence. 

-Non sequitur(it doesn’t follow): The writer’s conclusion is not necessarily a logical result of the facts.

-Begging the question: The writer presents as truth what is not yet proven by the argument.

-Red herring: The write introduces an irrelevant point to divert the reader’s attention from main issue.

-Argument&haminem(to the man): The writer attacks the opponent’s character rather than opponent’s argument.

-Faulty use of authority: The writer relies on “authorities” who are not convincing sources.

-Argument ad populum(to the people): The writer evades the issues by appealing to reader’s emotional reactions to certain subjects.

-either/or: The writer tries to convince readers that are only two sides to an issue-1 right, 1 wrong.

-Hypostatization: The writer uses an abstract concept as if it were a concrete reality. Example:”Science has proven…” or “Research shows…”

-Bandwagon appeal: The writer tries to validate a point by intimating that “everyone else believes in this”

-Straw man: The writer selects the opposition’s weakest or most insignificant point to argue against, to divert the readers’ attention from the real issues.

-Faulty analogy: The writer uses an extended comparison as proof of a point.

-Quick fix: The writer leans too heavily on catchy phases or empty slogans.


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