Chapter 6: Effective sentences

-Developing a clear style:

Give your sentences content.

Make your sentences specific.

Avoid overpacking your sentences.

Fix major sentence errors.

Pay attention to word order.

Avoid mixed constructions and faulty predication.

-Developing a Concise style

Avoid deadwood constructions.

Avoid redundancy.

Carefully consider your passive verbs.

Avoid pretentiousness.

-Developing an engaging style

Use specific, descriptive verbs

Use specific, precise modifiers that help the reader see, hear, or feel what you are describing.

Emphasize people when possible,

Vary your sentence style. 

Avoid overuse of any one kind of construction in the same sentence

Don’t change your point of view between or within sentences.

-Developing an Emphatic style

Word order.



Chapter 5: Drafting and Revising

Thinking critically as a writer:

1.)Learn to distinguish fact from opinion

2.)Support opinion with evidence

3.)Evaluate strength and source of evidence

4.)Use enough supporting evidence

5.)Watch biases and strong emotions that may undermine evidence

6.)Check evidence for logical fallacies

Chapter 14: Writing a Paper Using Research

Beginning your library research:

-General reference works

-Online catalogs


-The internet

-Special collections

-The personal interview( Know your purpose, Make an appointment, Educate yourself, Plan some questions)


-Author’s or editor’s full name(and name of translator if given)

-Complete title, including subtitle if one exists

-Edition number

-Volume number if the book is part of a series

-City of publication ad name of publisher

-Date of publication

-For a reading or article in an anthology, title and author

-Library call number or location of source


-Author’s full name (if given)

-Title of the article

-Title of the journal, magazine, or newspaper

-Volume and issue number of the journal or magazine

-Date of publication

-Page numbers of the article (section and page numbers for the newspaper)


-Author’s full name or name of sponsoring organization

-Title of document

-Information about print publication

-Information about electronic publication

-Access information


-Interviewee’s name and title

-Interviewee’s organization or company, job description, or other information regarding his or hr expertise, including pertinent publications, studies, presentations, and so forth

-Date, place an method of interview

English: Evaluation

Everything went well in our group project. Everyone did their part as asked to and we got out essay don’t on time. There were a few bumps along the road where we changed our topic a couple of times. We found it difficult to write a whole paper with the ideas with had. Kye edited most of the edition after i edited it and I learned a lot from reading her edit part of the essay. Rob also edit and helped write the essay.

“I love you” me…

“I love you” means that I accept you for the person that you are, and that I do not wish to change you into someone else. It means that I will love you and stand by you even through the worst of times. It means loving you even when you’re in a bad mood, or too tired to do the things I want to do. It means loving you when you’re down, not just when you’re fun to be with. “I love you” means that I know your deepest secrets and do not judge you for them, asking in return that you do not judge me for mine. It means that I care enough to fight for what we have and that I love you enough not to let go. It means thinking of you, dreaming of you, wanting and needing you constantly, and hoping you feel the same way for me.”

Reading: Chapter 10 “Argumentation”

-Developing your essay:

1.)Choose an appropriate topic-Try to find a more focused, specific issue within a subject that is too general.

2.)Explore the possibilities.. and your opinions-Jot down a list of ideas and study the list and choose the one that are logical and persuasive.

3.)Anticipate opposing views-To be convincing, you must be aware of your opposition’s views on the subject and then organize essay to answer or counter those views.

4.)Know and remember your audience-Analyze your audience by asking one self a series of question.

5.)Decide which points of argument to include-Plan out what to write in essay by making a Pro-and-Con sheet.

6.)Organize your essay clearly

7.)Argue your ideas logically-Give examples(real/hypothetical). Present a comparison/contrast. Show cause&effect relationship. Argue by definition.

8.)Offer evidence that effectively supports your claims-Personal experiences/testimony of others whose opinions are pertinent to the topic. Factual information you’ve gathers from research. Statistics from current, reliable sources. Testimony from authorities&experts. Charts, graphs, and diagrams.

9.)Find appropriate tone

10.)Consider using Rogerian techniques- A clear, objective statement of the problem/issue. A clear, objective summary of the opposite’s position that shows you understand its point of view&goals A clear, objective summary of your point of view, stated in nonthreatening language. A discussion that emphasizes the beliefs, values, and goals that you and your opposite have in common. A description of any of your points that you are willing to concede or compromise. An explanation of a planor proposed solute that meets the needs of both sides.

11.) Problems to Avoid(common logical fallacies)

-Hasty generalization: The writer bases the argument on insufficient or unrepresentative evidence. 

-Non sequitur(it doesn’t follow): The writer’s conclusion is not necessarily a logical result of the facts.

-Begging the question: The writer presents as truth what is not yet proven by the argument.

-Red herring: The write introduces an irrelevant point to divert the reader’s attention from main issue.

-Argument&haminem(to the man): The writer attacks the opponent’s character rather than opponent’s argument.

-Faulty use of authority: The writer relies on “authorities” who are not convincing sources.

-Argument ad populum(to the people): The writer evades the issues by appealing to reader’s emotional reactions to certain subjects.

-either/or: The writer tries to convince readers that are only two sides to an issue-1 right, 1 wrong.

-Hypostatization: The writer uses an abstract concept as if it were a concrete reality. Example:”Science has proven…” or “Research shows…”

-Bandwagon appeal: The writer tries to validate a point by intimating that “everyone else believes in this”

-Straw man: The writer selects the opposition’s weakest or most insignificant point to argue against, to divert the readers’ attention from the real issues.

-Faulty analogy: The writer uses an extended comparison as proof of a point.

-Quick fix: The writer leans too heavily on catchy phases or empty slogans.

Reading: Chapter 9 “Exposition”

Developing your Essay: Are all my examples relevant? Are my examples well chosen? Are there enough examples to make each point clear and persuasive?

Problems to Avoid: By far, the most common weakness n essays developed by example is a lack of specific detail. The second biggest problem in example essays is a lack of coherence.

-A directional process tells the reader how to do or make something. In simple words, it gives directions.

Developing your essay

-Select appropriate subject.

-Describe any necessary equipment and define special terms.

-Include all the necessary steps in a logical order.

-explain each step clearly, sufficiently and accurately.

-Organize your steps effectively.

Problems to Avoid

– Don’t forget to include a thesis.

-Pay special attention to your conclusion.

Reviewing your progress:Which part of your essay is most successful? Why? Select two details that contribute significantly to the clarity of your explanation. Why are these details effective? What part of your essay gave you the most trouble? How did you overcome the problem?

-Problems to avoid:

1.)The single most serious error is the “so-what” thesis.

2.)Describe your subject’s clearly and distinctly.

3.)Avoid a choppy essay.

A special Kind of comparison: The Analogy

1.)To clarify and explain

2.)To argue and persuade

3.) To dramatize or capture an image.