Reading: Chapter 11 “Description”

How to write effective description

-Recognize your purpose.

-Describe clearly, using specific details.

-Select only appropriate details.

-Make your description vivid.(Sight, hearing, smell, touch, taste)

Problems to Avoid

-Remember your audience.

-Avoid an erratic organization of details.

-Avoid any sudden change in perspective.


Reading: Chapter 15 “Classroom Writing: Exams, Timed Essays, and Presentation”

Steps to Writing well Under Pressure:

1.)Clarify for yourself the kind of task you face(Short-answer exam questions, essay exam questions, “prompted essays, summary-and-response essays.”

2.)arrived prepared.

3.)Read the entire assignment with great care,

4.)Prepare to write.

5.)Begin writing.

6.)Read what you have written.

7.)Concluding tips:if you have handwritten your work.

-Problems to Avoid

Misreading the assignment

incomplete essay.

Composition amnesia.

Gorilla generalizations.

Steps to successful Presentations

1.)Clearly understand your assignment’s purpose and format.

2.)Once you understand your purpose and its format, be aware of the presentation’s exact logistical requirement.

3.)Consider your listening audience’s needs.

4.)Practice your critical thinking skills.

5.)Make a written draft of your talk.

6.)Practice your delivery.

Guidelines for Effective Delivery

1.)Monitor your voice.

2.)Make eye contact.

3.)Avoid distractions.

4.)Consider instructional aids.

5.)Adjust and adapt.

6.)End well.

Reading: Chapter 6 “Effective sentences”

-Developing a clear style:

Give your sentences content.

Make your sentences specific.

Avoid overpacking your sentences.

Fix major sentence errors.

Pay attention to word order.

Avoid mixed constructions and faulty predication.

-Developing a Concise style

Avoid deadwood constructions.

Avoid redundancy.

Carefully consider your passive verbs.

Avoid pretentiousness.

-Developing an engaging style

Use specific, descriptive verbs

Use specific, precise modifiers that help the reader see, hear, or feel what you are describing.

Emphasize people when possible,

Vary your sentence style. 

Avoid overuse of any one kind of construction in the same sentence

Don’t change your point of view between or within sentences.

-Developing an Emphatic style

Word order.




Reading: Chapter 1 “Prewriting”

-Selecting A subject: FInd best space. Select something in which you currently have a strong interest. Narrow a large subject.

-Finding your essay’s purpose and focus: Find clear focus or direction for your essay. Determine the main point that you want to make. Always allow your interest and knowledge to guide you.

-Pump-Primer Techniques:Listing, free writing, looping, the boomerang, clustering, cubing(Describe it, compare or contrast it, free-associate it, analyze it, argue for or against it, apply it), interviewing, the cross-examination, sketching, dramatizing the subject.

-How to identify your Readers: Readers don’t like to be bored. Readers hate confusion and disorder. Readers want to think and learn(whether they realize or not). Reader want to see what you see, feel what you feel. Readers are turned off by writers with pretentious, phony voices,

-Uses of the Journal:

1.)Use the journal, especially in the first weeks of class, to confront your fears of writing, to conquer the blank page.

2.) Improve your powers of observation.

3.)Save your own brilliant ideas.

4.)Save other people’s brilliant ideas.

5.)Be creative.

6.)Keep pre- and post-reading notes.

7.)Record responses to class discussions.

8.)Fous on a problem.

9.)Practice audience awareness.

10.)Describe your own writing process.

11.)Write a progress report.

12.)Become sensitive.

13.)Write your own textbook.

Reading: Chapter 5 “Drafting and Revising”

-Critical thinking refers to the ability to reflect upon and evaluate the merits of our own ideas and those of others as we decide what to believe, what to do, or how to act.

Thinking critically as a writer:

1.)Learn to distinguish fact from opinion

2.)Support opinion with evidence

3.)Evaluate strength and source of evidence

4.)Use enough supporting evidence

5.)Watch biases and strong emotions that may undermine evidence

6.)Check evidence for logical fallacies

Guidelines for peer revision workshop as a WRITER: Develop a constructive attitude. Come prepared. Evaluate suggestions carefully. Find the good in bad advice.

Guidelines for peer revision workshop as the REVIEWER: Develop a constructive attitude. Be clear and specific. Address important issues. Encourage the writer. Understand your role as critical reader.

Guidelines for small-group work:Start informed. Know your purpose. Create a plan with a time schedule. Consider appointing roles. Stay focused, Be a good listener as well as a good talker. Set a good example.

Reading: Chapter 4 “Beginnings and Endings”

Examples of lead-ins:

1.)A paradoxical/intriguing statement.

2.)An arresting statistic or shocking statement.

3.)A question.

4.)A quotation from a recognized authority, historical figure, or literary source.

5.) A relevant story, joke, anecdote.

6.)A description, often used for emotional appeal.

7.)A factual statement or a summary who-what-where-when-why lead in.

8.)An analogy/comparison.

9.)A contrast or a before-and-after scenario.

10.)A personal experience

11.)A catalog of relevant examples or facts.

12.)Statement of a problem or a popular misconception.

13.)Brief dialogue to introduce the topic.

14.)A proverb, maxim, motto.

15.)A recognition, revelation, or insight.

16.)An appeal to a common or imagined experience.

Avoiding Errors in Lead-ins:Make sure lead-in introduces thesis. Keep lead-in brief. Don’t begin with apology or complaint. Don’t assume audience already knows subject matter. Stay clear of overused lead-ins.

-How to write good concluding paragraph:

1.)A summary of the thesis and the essay’s major points

2.)An evaluation of importance of the essay’s subject

3.)A statement of the essay’s broader implications

4.)A recommendation or call to action

5.)A warning based on essay’s thesis

6.)A quotation from an authority or someone whose insight emphasizes main point.

7.)An anecdote/brief example that emphasizes or sums up the point of essay

8.)An image/description that lends finality to the essay

9.)A rhetorical question that makes the readers think about main point

10.)A forecast based on thesis

11.)ironic twist, witticism, pun or playful use of words

12.)Return to technique used in lead-in(answer question you asked circle back to story)

Avoiding Errors in conclusions: Avoid boring, mechanical ending. Don’t introduce new points or irrelevant material. Don’t tack on conclusion. Don’t change stance. Avoid trite expressions. Don’t insult or anger readers.

How to present title: No special marks of punctuation if own title. Capitalize first, last and important words of title. DONT capitalize such words as “an”, “and”, “a”. Sometimes writers craft a title that presents a word/phrase followed by a colon introducing a definition.

Reading: Chapter 3 ” The Body Paragraph”

-Body paragraph support thesis, citing examples, explaining causes, offering reasons and supply enough specific evidence.

-The topic sentence:present one main point in discussion. It could be place at the beginning or end. It also should be tightly focused and stated precisely that helps the reader understand the point of the paragraph.

-Deductive Order:moves from a generalization to a particular details that explain/support the general statement.(starts with topic sentence)

-Inductive order:begins with an examination of particular details and then concludes with a larger point or generalization about those details(ends with topic sentence)

-Transitional words and phrases:first, second, then particular

-Repetition of key words:important words/phases and their synonyms

-Pronouns substituted key nouns: it—>shark

-Parallelism means using the same grammatical structure in several sentences to establish coherence.